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Choosing Nursing Theory

The art of nursing based its foundations in nurturing and caring for individuals during a process of healing. Changes and transformation occurred daily and in a fast pace in the United States healthcare system. Healthcare providers, including nurses, are responsible to understand and apply this changes and improvements to their daily practices. (Edmundson, 2012). As a result, middle range theories emerged as a tool to provide advanced practice nurses support in constructing prototypes and concepts to frame their work in providing patient’s care. Views, values, beliefs, knowledge, and experience are gears to help create structure to the nursing discipline.

The purpose of this article is to recognize the drives that a master’s degree professional nurse should define in their practice to choose a middle range nursing theory, values and beliefs that guide nursing practice. In addition, a master’s prepared nurse should be able to recognize their personal values and beliefs and its consistency with the selected nursing theory. Moreover, hopes and expectations that an advanced nurse professional desire from the usage of a mentioned nursing theory. This article will also include the benefits of the chosen nursing theory and how a nursing theory can improve one’s practice as well as improve patient care.

Middle Range Nursing Theory

According to Edmundson (2012) nursing models are conceptual prototypes created to help nurses assess, plan, and implement patient care by providing a framework within the discipline. After the implementation of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, quality of care andpatient’s satisfaction are essentials to satisfy emerging markets demands. “the Quality Caring Model could assist with efforts to not only improve patient satisfaction, but also improve nurse’s satisfaction and commitment” (Heindel, 2015, p.42)

In 2003, Joanne Duffy, in conjunction with previous theorist’s that work with caring as a concept, developed the Quality Care Model. (O'Nan, Jenkins, Morgan, Adams, & Davis, 2014). Duffy’s model brought new meaning to caring and quality by including patient’s satisfaction as a strong determinant during a process of healing. While a relationship patient-nurse is developed a patient share information, feelings, concerns, fears that facilitates caring. As a result, better outcomes are to be achieved. The Quality Caring Model is being utilized in over 40 U.S. hospitals in the United States as a proven tool to improve quality, excellence, and patient’s satisfaction. (Duffy, Kooken, Wolverton, & Weaver, 2012).

Values and Beliefs Guiding Practice

The Quality Care Model underlines human caring as a principal value of the nursing profession. (Amendolair, 2012). Others define nursing as the labor of love where emotions, compassion collect a heavy toll in the form of burnout. (Drozdowicz & Dillard, 2014). In addition to human caring, Duffy’s model beliefs that effective communication is essential to meet goals in gathering information to provide excellence in care. Joanne Duffy described the major components of the Quality Caring model as “humans in relationship, relationship-centered professional encounters, feeling “cared for,” and self-advancing systems” (Duffy, 2013, p. 34). On other words, Duffy’s model centered its beliefs and values in human’s communication and interaction provider-patient that creates a bond, where human caring emerged and recovery
occurred.

Personal Values and Beliefs Consisting with Nursing Theory

A nurse is an extraordinary and unique human being. Professionals that use their knowledge to help others who are ill. The Quality Caring Model apply to every nurse that recognizes the dignity, needs, and feelings of their patients. The main reason of selecting the Quality Care Model is because is in congruency with the current culture of new graduates that emerged after the launched of the Affordable Care Act. Furthermore, a nurse can either positive or negative impact other lives. According to Amendolair (2012), the reason why nurse’s candidates want to become nurses is because they want to care for people. As a result, caring is present and ingrained in the nursing profession. Doing for others, providing hope to face a difficult situation, by advocating, preserving life, and satisfying basic needs are in simple words, caring.

Achievement with Use of Nursing Theory

Caring is a principal value of nursing. As a result, it is essential that every nurse incorporates in this value into their daily practice in order to improve quality of service. Even though, nursing theories are difficult to understand, the Quality Caring Model is a tool to remind nurse that caring enhanced their practices. Despite the fact that caring is already occurring daily in nursing, communication and the creation of the bonding patient-nurse are key to reduce the time of recovery from an illness. “The Quality Caring Model was framed to support and enhance our current practices, not to recreate them” (Edmundson, 2012, p.413).

Using Theory to Support Practice

A neonatal intensive care unit can be intimidating and frightening for parents. Premature and sick newborns surround the environment. Caring for a newborn sick patient can be challenging for a healthcare provider. A process of healing on this type of patients include their parents. Therefore, caring should include parents and families as well as the ill newborn. According to O’nan et all. (2014), the strength of the Quality Care Model is a fluid process where quality of caring can be an ongoing task. Leadership and caring behavior will maintain balance when implementing a nursing guide or model. Consistency, communication, personalization of care, being considerate, active listening, constant education, involving families in the plan of care are factors that will lead to patients and families feel cared for. Therefore, patient’s satisfaction and quality of service demands will be met.

Using Theory to Improve Practice

In order to link practice to better patient outcomes a caring relationship patient-provider should be encourage. Therefore, the quality caring model practice is to be include in every caregiver daily practice. Joanne Duffy developed the caring factors that include mutual problem solving, reassurance, human respect, encouraging manner, healing environment, appreciation of unique meaning, affiliation needs, and basic human needs. This great tool serves as a guide to gather information that impact patient and family aftermaths. (O’nan et all, 2014, p. 28). It is proven that the caring assessment tool developed by J. Duffy reflects an improvement in patient’s perceptions of being treated with care and excellence service. (Duffy, Brewer &Weaver, 2014).

Ethical Considerations on Theory and Nursing Practice

Although human caring is essential in nursing care. Ethical issues emerged due to the uniqueness of each patient health status situation. Nowadays, front line nurses are literally bombarded with a transformational healthcare as well as critical ill situational patients. As a result, the nursing profession is obligated to process, improve and help remodeling the process of care in the actual healthcare industry to satisfy demands while offer respectfu care with justice.

According to Aitamaa, Leino-Kilpi, Iltanen & Suhonen (2016), the nursing profession face ethical issues in a daily basis. Nonetheless, safety and patient’s care must be ensured in all situations. “Inherent in nursing practice is the obligation to protect patients from harm and the respect of human rights, cultural rights, rights to life and choice, human dignity, and the need for respect in care” (Vryonides, Papastavrou, Charalambous, Andreou, & Merkouris, 2015, p. 882). In nursing research ethics is fundamental to protect society and ensure a good practice. (Doody & Noonan, 2016).

The Institute of Medicine address this challenging situation for healthcare providers by framing practice and stablishing standards. The American Nursing Association also guided and support ethical dilemmas in nursing practice. Research should be able to safeguard the right of participants during research. Confidentiality, limiting risk of harm, justice, caring, ability to tell the truth, and a commitment to do good to patients are to be always
present during research.

Conclusion

The Quality Caring Model serves as a frame to any healthcare provider to handle bed side care. This mentioned tool takes you by the hand to learn about your patients, families and their unique and in need of attentiveness situations. Caring for other is present in the heart of every healthcare provider. Therefore, guiding to keep maintaining focus to patient’s needs is fundamental in daily practice. The Quality Caring Model of Joanne Duffy is able to satisfy this demand. On the other hand, nursing research as well as nursing practice in general should preserve patient’s right and services at all times. The United States has the opportunity to improve quality of care. The Quality Care Model achieve this goal by improving patient’s satisfaction and better health
outcomes.

References

Aitamaa, E., Leino-Kilpi, H., Iltanen, S., & Suhonen, R. (2016). Ethical problems in nursing management. Nursing Ethics, 23(6), 646-658.

Amendolair, D. (2012). Caring model: Putting research into practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(4), 14-21.

Dewar, B., & Nolan, M. (2013). Caring about caring: Developing a model to implement compassionate relationship centered care in an older people care setting. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(9), 1247-1258.

Doody, O., & Noonan, M. (2016). Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice. British Journal Of Nursing, 25(14), 803-807.

Drozdowicz, A. A., & Dillard, D. (2014). Presence in the neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 29(4), 63-67.

Duffy, J. R., Kooken, W. C., Wolverton, C. L., & Weaver, M. T. (2012). Evaluating patient centered care: Feasibility of electronic data collection in hospitalized older adults.
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Duffy, J. R. (2013). Quality caring in nursing and health systems: Implications for clinicians, educators, and leaders. Springer Publishing Company.

Edmundson, E. (2012). The quality caring nursing model: A journey to selection and implementation. Journal of pediatric nursing, 27(4), 411-415.
Epstein, B., & Turner, M. (2015). The Nursing code of ethics: Its value, its history. OJIN: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(2).

Heindel, K. (2015). Relationship-based care: A test of the quality caring model's association with nurses' perceptions of work and patient relationships. Theses
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Maillie, S., & Breitbarth, K. (2012). Watson's theory of human caring as a research framework to reduce restraints in MICU. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(3), 82-83.

Norman, K. (2016). Performing the art of nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 25(12), 668-668.

Nan, C. L., Jenkins, K., Morgan, L. A., Adams, T., & Davis, B. A. (2014). Evaluation of Quality Caring Model© on patients' perceptions of nurse caring in a community hospital. International Journal for Human Caring, 18(1), 27-34.

Ranheim, A., Kärner, A., & Berterö, C. (2012). Caring theory and practice-entering a simultaneous concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 47(2), 78-90.

Shearer, J. E. (2015). Critique of nursing as caring theory: Aesthetic knowing and caring in online learning. International Journal for Human Caring, 19(2), 45-49.

Song, M., & Ward, S. E. (2015). Making visible a theory-guided advance care planning intervention. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(5), 389-396.

Vryonides, S., Papastavrou, E., Charalambous, A., Andreou, P., & Merkouris, A. (2015). The
ethical dimension of nursing care rationing. Nursing Ethics, 22(8), 881-900.

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