- Discuss the functional components of one of the theories in chapters 7-16 in the Smith & Parker’s text.
- The theory must be related to the metaparadigm of nursing.
- Support your statement with at least two peer-reviewed articles (i.e. see discussion rubric and/or criteria below).
Nursing metaparadigm involves four concepts: person, health, environment, and nursing (Smith & Parker, 2015). This metaparadigm is often a foundation of many nursing theories that aim ultimately to improve nursing practice and health. One particular nursing theory that encompassed the metaparadigm of nursing is Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory (SCDNT).
The underlying premise of SCDNT is the manner in which people engage in communication amongst themselves and the environment to remain alive and function (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 144). The theory is comprised of four interrelated concepts that include theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, theory of nursing systems and theory of dependent care (Hartweg, 2015). The concept of self-care is the idea that self-care must be learned and deliberately performed to maintain life and well-being. The concept of self-care deficit specifies when nursing is needed. The theory of nursing systems describes how the self-care needs of the patient will be met by the nurse. The level of care needed will be determined by the need of the patient to be wholly or partially compensatory or supportive through teaching and education (Green, 2013). The theory of dependent care relates that the self-care of an individual is dependent on the caregiver’s ability to meet that patient’s need. The education and knowledge of the caregiver is crucial in this theory. Sometimes a caregiver who is not familiar with the limitations of the patient may end up doing more for the patient than needed. The reason this is important is because if obstacles are tended to in every way, a threshold is eventually reached and the need to be independent is eradicated (Green, 2012). The patient must be allowed to grow, be challenged and guided to a higher level of self-care dependency.
Since Orem’s SCDNT theory is closely related to the nursing paradigm, it was applied to a group of BSN students in an eight week class to enhance their knowledge of a nursing theory class. The students followed the concepts of Orem’s theory to identify their own knowledge deficits and modeled SCDNT to determine how to increase their knowledge independence and better provided for their patients by conceptualizing their understanding of theory through discussion board interactions that enhanced their understanding of theory (Davidson, 2012).
What makes this theory unique is that it is dynamic and requires one to be reflective on what is working with what isn’t. A need must be identified and a way to overcome it must be provided in a manner that conserves the well-being of the patient. It is clear that Orem’s theory can help identify how to overcome a self-care need whether that need belongs to a patient, caregiver and with a little creativity even apply it to a student nurse filling a nursing theory knowledge deficit.